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Briefly, the model states that the generation of an action potential is determined by two ions: Na and K .An action potential can be divided into several sequential phases: threshold, rising phase, falling phase, undershoot phase, and recovery.In the human brain alone, there are over eighty billion neurons.Neurons are diverse with respect to morphology and function.Although slower than ionotropic receptors that function as on-and-off switches, metabotropic receptors have the advantage of changing the cell's responsiveness to ions and other metabolites, examples being gamma amino-butyric acid (inhibitory transmitter), glutamic acid (excitatory transmitter), dopamine, norepinephrine, epinephrine, melanin, serotonin, melatonin, and substance P.In neuroscience, synaptic plasticity is the ability of synapses to strengthen or weaken over time, in response to increases or decreases in their activity.Repolarization of the membrane potential continues, resulting in an undershoot phase or absolute refractory period.The undershoot phase occurs because unlike voltage-gated sodium channels, voltage-gated potassium channels inactivate much more slowly.

Once bounded with Ca2 , the vesicles dock and fuse with the presynaptic membrane, and release neurotransmitters into the synaptic cleft by a process known as exocytosis.These vesicles are pooled together in terminal boutons of the presynaptic neuron.When there is a change in voltage in the terminal bouton, voltage-gated calcium channels embedded in the membranes of these boutons become activated.Ionotropic receptors are a combination of a receptor and an ion channel.When ionotropic receptors are activated, certain ion species such as Na to enter the postsynaptic neuron, which depolarizes the postsynaptic membrane.

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Cellular neuroscience examines the various types of neurons, the functions of different neurons, the influence of neurons upon each other, how neurons work together.

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